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Deciphering the mechanisms of durotaxis in crawling cells

Jeudi 25 septembre 2014 15:00 - Duree : 1 heure
Lieu : Conference room - LIPhy - Bât E - 140 Avenue de la Physique - St Martin d’Hères. Accès par interphone, appeler le secrétariat

Orateur : Sylvain GABRIELE (University of Mons, Interfaces and Complex Fluid Laboratory, Mechanobiology & Soft Matter group - Faculty of Sciences, Campus of Sciences and Medicine, Av. Maistriau, 7000 Mons, Belgium)

Cell motility is a fundamental process for embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses and for pathological processes such as cancer metastasis. During past few decades, the influence of the extracellular matrix stiffness has been extensively studied on "stationary" cells, with a particular attention on stem cell differentiation. Despite these efforts, the current understanding of the impact of matrix stiffness on cell motility, known as "durotaxis", is incomplete. To address this challenge, we used a wide range of ECM stiffnesses functionalized with a constant cell-ligand density to study the behavior of epithelial fish keratocytes in response to stiffness changes. We found that modifying the matrix rigidity of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on the morphology and the directionality of crawling cells. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the matrix stiffness controls the motile behavior, we examined the spatial organization of the actin network and myosin in response to matrix stiffness changes. Then, we focused our attention on cell-matrix interactions to uncover a sequence of tightly integrated events that underline the importance of focal adhesions and especially alpha-5 beta-1 integrins in the mechanosensing mechanism of highly motile cells. Our results are consistent with a physical model in which the keratocyte morphology and the migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, myosin II activity and alpha5beta1 integrin-mediated adhesions.

Contact : martial.balland@ujf-grenoble.fr

Discipline évènement : (Physique)
Entité organisatrice : (LIPhy)
Nature évènement : (Séminaire)
Evènement répétitif : (Séminaire Mat. Molle/grise)
Site de l'évènement : Domaine Universitaire de St Martin d’Hères

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