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Understanding the Role of Tissue-Scale Forces in Driving Shape Changes in Developing Animals : Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila

Lundi 12 septembre 2016 14:00 - Duree : 1 heure
Lieu : Conference room - LIPhy - Bât E - 140 Avenue de la Physique - St Martin d’Hères. Accès par interphone, appeler le secrétariat

Orateur : Claire LYE (Dept. Physiology, Development and Neurosciences, Univ. Cambridge, GB)

Developing animal tissues achieve their functional shapes through dramatic morphogenetic movements, which are driven by the behaviours of the constituent cells. Morphogenesis has captured the imagination of scientists for decades, with the importance of mechanics for morphogenesis already recognised a century ago. To fully understand how morphogenesis is achieved requires considering both genetic and mechanical aspects and the interaction between them. I use the morphogenesis of fruit-fly (Drosophila) embryos as a model system in which to do this.

How genetic programs generate cell-intrinsic forces to shape embryos is actively studied, but less so how tissue-scale physical forces impact morphogenesis. I will discuss the role of tissue-scale forces during Drosophila axis extension, also known as germband extension (GBE). Previous work in our lab had shown that cells elongate in the anteroposterior (AP) axis in the extending germband, suggesting that an extrinsic tensile force contributed to body axis extension.

To identify the morphogenetic movements that could be the source of this extrinsic force, we temporally mapped gastrulation movements using light sheet microscopy to image whole Drosophila embryos. We found that endoderm invagination is synchronous with the onset of GBE. AP cell elongation is abolished in the absence of endoderm invagination. We used laser ablation to confirm that tension is increased in the AP orientation compared to the perpendicular orientation in the posterior germband close to the site of endoderm invagination. We propose that endoderm invagination is the source of the extrinsic tensile force contributing to germband extension. This highlights the importance of physical interactions between tissues during morphogenesis.

Contact : jocelyn.etienne@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr

Discipline évènement : (Biologie / Chimie)
Entité organisatrice : (LIPhy)
Nature évènement : (Séminaire)
Evènement répétitif : (Séminaire Mat. Molle/grise)
Site de l'évènement : Domaine Universitaire de St Martin d’Hères

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